Tag Archives: low power


Low power in LoRaWan world – Meet the RN2483

I’m working on a project were I have to build a network of battery powered sensors over a territory the size of a small town.The sensors will monitor power consumption, temperature and humidity in energy poor households. Often the families in that situation can’t afford an internet connection at home so WiFi is out of question. GPRS would be an option but lately other radio technologies have come to my interest.

I’m a core member of The Things Network Community in Catalunya. LoRa is one such technologies. The (soon) availability of affordable gateways and the open nature of the software stack (from gateway firmware to backends to handlers) make it a great candidate to build an open, libre wireless sensor network that can cover large territories with few gateways.

Someday soon I’ll talk about the gateways, backends and so. Now I’m focusing on nodes. The idea is very similar to my previous post about a Moteino energy monitor node with an RFM69 radio, but using a LoRa radio and LoRaWan protocol instead. There are several options here. The cheaper and more common is to use a HopeRF RFM9X LoRa module and implement the LoRaWan specification in code. There are already libraries for arduino and alike that implement the LoraMAC specification almost at 100%. But for my first try I used another approach.

Microchip is selling a serial module that implements the full LoRaWan stack and communicates with your favourite uC through serial. The Microchip RN2483 (in the EU) is very easy to use and it’s price is not very different from HopeRF modules (both are about 15 euros at DigiKey). It’s the same module that the people at The Things Network have used for their The Things Uno prototyping platform (and Arduino Uno with a RN2483 module).


Question is: is the RN2483 a good choice for a battery powered LoRaWan node?

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Moteino Door Monitor

Some days ago I posted about the RFM69 to MQTT gateway based on the ESP8266 I am working on. Over these days I’ve been fine tuning the gateway at the same time I was migrating one of my home sensors to Moteino: the Door Monitor. The previous version was based on an XBee radio and has been on duty for almost 3 years and a half. Real life battery time has been around 3 months for a CR2032 coin cell, which is not bad at all, but still…

Aside from using a Moteino and a RFM69 868MHz radio instead of the XBee, I have reduced the components list by moving hardware logic to software logic. This means using sleeping capabilities of both the ATMega328 and the RFM69 and coding in a clever way to reduce awake time.

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PCB milling

it’s been a while (ok, more than a whole year) since my last post. I could say I’ve been busy and it’d be true but I regret myself not writting here for so long… Anyway if you want to know what I’ve been doing just visit my family blog (only in spanish, sorry).


Blue footed boobies (yes, I know). Nothing to do with this blog but part of our family trip.

My idea now is to revisit old projects, the ones I’ve been working on for the last 18 months and even older, and also to write about new projects I’m involved right now. Good bye chronological order.

The months prior to our travel to South America I was working on some collaborative projects related to Barcelona’s network of public fablabs (named Ateneus), and here I am to share with you one of those projects, not only because I found the initiative interesting and the project worth sharing, but because it was cool to see how a 1.8×3 meters CNC mill (that’s 5.9×9.8 feet working area, for you imperialists) will remove the copper from a 2x3cm clad.


Do you see the copper clad? Me neither, but it’s there…

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Smartmeter pulse counter (2)

This week I have had some spare time – well, I should say I’ve borrowed some time from my sleep – to work on the smart-meter pulse counter setup.

In my last post about this I analized the signal from my photocell sensor. My conclusion was that the signal was clean and neat, even before throwing in a schmitt trigger to make it more “digital”. I have found out that it is also very dependent on the environmental light so I good isolation is a must for the sensor.

I had already prepared a sensor probe with a 3.5mm audio jack on one end and the photocell on the other. But the photocell is aligned with the cable, which is quite rigid and I am concerned about how to attach it to the smart meter case. For now I will leave it like that and do some real scenario tests. Since it is an external sensor I can change it whenever I want.

Finally I have also added an RC filter to the sensor input. The previous data suggests it is not necessary but I needed to do some tests with a faked signal source (a mini button) and it won’t harm.

Aside from these things I’ve done some very important steps forward. I have a final schema for the board.

There are some points worth noticing:

  • I’ve added a ceramic capacitor across VDD and GND as the Xbee documentation recommends. I didn’t have the 1uF and 8.2pF ones but I have seen some boards with the *standard* 100nF.
  • There is a voltage divider for the battery monitoring on the top right corner.
  • On the bottom you can see the voltage divider with the photocell in series with the RC filter
  • I’m wiring DIO9 *and* DTR to the Arduino, this way I can switch from Xbee-driven to Arduino-driven from code (more on this later).
  • Finally I decided to wire DOUT to the Arduino (I’m using SoftwareSerial, so RX and TX pins are digital 5 and 6 respectively) Not any more. I am using hardware serial on the final version…

This setup allows me to choose between two very different approaches: I can make Arduino drive the sleep cycle by changing DTR pin (Xbee in mode SM1 or “pin sleep”) or I can make the Xbee control the sleep cycle (Xbee in mode SM4/5 or “cycle sleep”) triggering an Arduino interrupt  when it awakes.

The first option lets me send a report every N pulses. In my case 4 pulses equal 1Wh. Lets say I want to report chunks of 5Wh, that’s 20 pulses. That means a report every 4.5 to 90 seconds depending on the current load (200W to 4kW range), being 60 seconds (300W) the average.

With the second option I can report average power consumption every minute. The Arduino counts the pulses and when the Xbee awakes it asks the Arduino (i.e. triggers an interrupt) to calculate and report the average power consumption over the last minute. For instance, if the pulse count is 28, that’s 7Wh over the last minute or an average of 420W.

I prefer the later because the reports are evenly spaced which means they are somewhat easier to graph and the graph is more meaningful: if you graph the power in the Y axis and time in the X axis the area below the power line is the energy (watts * hour). With the former the data should be post-processed to get some useful information like average Wh per day.

I’ve already done some tests but, so far, I have not been able to program the Xbee to follow an accurate sleep cycle. To configure the sleep period you can use SP and SN, the first one represents the time in tens of milliseconds, the second is a multiplier. So with SP=0x03E8 (1000 in hex) and SN=0x06 that’s 60 seconds. The problem is that the awake period has it’s own counter, ST, which is reset “each time serial or RF data is received”. That introduces a random time in the calculation which translates into a slight shift in the reports.

Option B would be to use some RTC to awake the Xbee with an alarm trigger. But I would rather avoid adding more hardware to the sensor.

Well, still a lot of things to figure out… more to follow 🙂